Saturday, December 21, 2013

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Monday, April 22, 2013

SMART (INTELLIGENT) GELS (HYDROGELS)

In the literature you can find these smart materials under a variety of names, as reflected by
the title of this section. The concept of smart gels is a combination of the simple concept
of solvent-swollen polymer networks in conjunction with the material being able to respond
to other types of stimuli. A partial list of these stimuli includes temperature, pH, chemicals,
concentration of solvents, ionic strength, pressure, stress, light intensity, electric fields, magnetic
fields, and different types of radiation.35–39 The founding father of these smart gels,
Toyochi Tanaka, first observed this phenomenon in swollen clear polyacrylamide gels. Upon
cooling, these gels would cloud up and become opaque. Upon warming these gels regained
their clarity. Upon further investigation to explain this behavior, it was found that some gel
systems could expand to hundreds of times their original volume or could collapse to expel
up to 90% of its fluid content with a stimulus of only a 1 C change in temperature. Similar
behavior was observed with a change of 0.1 pH unit.
These types of behaviors led to the development of gel-based actuators, values, sensors,
control-led release systems for drugs and other substances, artificial muscles for robotic
devices, chemical memories, optical shutters, molecular separation systems, and toys. Other
potential systems for the development of products with smart (intelligent) gels (hydrogels)
include paints, adhesives, recyclable absorbents, bioreactors, bioassay systems, and display.
Numerous examples of the commercialization of these smart gels can be found in Ref.
35. This chapter will only include a few examples of smart gels. One such smart gel consists
of an entangled network of two polymers, a poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and a triblock copolymer
of poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) with a sequence of
PEO–PPO–PEO. The PAA portion is a bioadhesive and is pH responsive, the PPO moieties
are hydrophobic substances that assist in solubilizing lipophilic substances in medical applications,
and the PEO functionalities tend to aggregate, resulting in gelation at body temperatures.
Another smart gel system with a fairly complex composition consists of citosan,
a hydrolyzed derivative of chitin (a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine that is found in shrimp
and crab shells), a copolymer of poly(nisopropylacrylamide) and poly(acrylic acid), and a
graft copolymer of poly(methacrylic aid) and poly(ethylene glycol). This gel system was
developed for the controlled release of insulin in diabetics.
Polyampholytic smart hydrogels swell to their maximum extent at neutral pH values.
When such gels, copolymers of methacrylic acid 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate,
are subjected to either acidic or basic media, they undergo rapid dehydration.39
One very unusual smart gel is based upon the polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide,
a derivative of tris(2,2 -bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) that has a polymerizable vinyl group, and
N,N -methylenebisacrylamide. It is a self-oscillating gel that simulates the beating of the
heart with color changes.
Mechanical Engineers’ Handbook: Materials and Mechanical Design, Volume 1, Third Edition.
Edited by Myer Kutz
2006 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Sunday, November 18, 2012

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